L’ ?ch ?ance centrale de cette fin du mois de juin est le d ?bat public du lundi 28 juin ? 20h30, hall Aragon ? Pau, avec Eric Aubin, responsable conf ?d ?ral de la CGT, charg ? de la question des retraites, pour d ?fendre la retraite ? 60 ans ? taux plein (c’est- ?-dire sans d ?cote). Calendrier : – mercredi 16 juin ? 18h, Oloron : manifestation ; – mercredi 16 juin ? 18h30, MJC Berlioz, Pau : r ?union d’information avec le diaporama d’Herv ? Moreau ; – jeudi 17 juin ? 20h30, mairie d’Orthez : (...)
Graphic design is a profession whose business is the act of designing,
programming, and create visual communications, generally produced by
industrial means and intended to convey specific messages
to specific social groups, with a clear purpose. This is the
activity that enables graphically communicate ideas, facts and values processed and synthesized in terms of form and communication, social, cultural, economic, aesthetic and technological.
Also known as visual communication design, because some associate the word figure only to the printing industry,
and understand that visual messages are channeled through many media, not just print.
Given the massive and rapid growth in the exchange of information, the
demand for graphic designers is greater than ever, particularly because of the development of new technologies and
the need to pay attention to the human factors that are beyond
the competence of engineers who develop them.
Some classifications are widely used graphic design : advertising design,
editorial design, corporate identity design, web design, packaging
design, typographic design, signage design, multimedia design, among others.
Graphic Design History
The definition of the graphic design profession is rather recent, in what concerns their preparation, their activities and goals.
Although there is no consensus on the exact date of the birth of graphic design, some dating during
the interwar period. Others understand that begins to identify as such to the late nineteenth century.
Arguably specific graphic communications purposes have their origin in Paleolithic cave paintings and the birth of
written language in the third millennium BC.
C. But the differences in working methods and training required auxiliary sciences
are such that it is not possible to clearly identify the
current graphic designer with prehistoric man, with xylograph fifteenth century or the lithographer 1890.
The diversity of opinion reflects the fact that some see as a product of graphic design and all
other graphical demonstration only those that arise
as a result of the application of a model of industrial production,
those visual manifestations that have been "projected" contemplating needs of different
types : productive symbolic ergonomic contextual etc.
A page from the Book of Kells : Folio 114, with decorated text contains the Tunc
dicit illis. An example of art and page layout of the
The Book of Kells - A Bible handwritten richly illustrated by Irish monks in the ninth century CE-is for some a very beautiful
and early example of graphic design concept. It is a graphic demonstration of
great artistic value, high quality, and that even a model for learning to design-for even surpasses in quality to
many of the current-editorial productions, and also from a functional point
of view contemporary This graphic piece responds to all needs
presented the team of people who made it, however
others believe that it would be graphic design product, because they understand that their design is not adjusted to
the idea of current graphic design project.
The history of typography-and by transitive, also the history of
the book-is closely linked to graphic design, this may be because there
are virtually no graphics designs that do not include
such items graphics. Hence, when talking about the
history of graphic design, typography also cited the Trajan column, medieval miniatures, Johannes
Gutenberg's printing press, the evolution of the
book industry, the posters Parisian Arts Movement and Crafts (Arts and Crafts), William Morris, Bauhaus, etc..
The introduction of movable type by Johannes Gutenberg made books cheaper to produce, and facilitate their dissemination. The first printed books (incunabula) scored the role model to the twentieth century. Graphic design of this era has become known as Old Style (especially the typefaces which these early typographers used), or Humanist, due to the predominant philosophical school of the time.
After Gutenberg, no significant changes were seen until the late nineteenth century, particularly in Britain, there was an effort to create a clear division between the fine and applied arts.
In the 19th Century
First page of the book "The Nature of Gothic" by John Ruskin, published by the Kelmscott Press. The Arts and Crafts intended to revive the medieval art, inspiration in nature and manual labor.
During the nineteenth century visual message design was entrusted alternately two professionals : the artist or the publisher. The first was formed as an artist and the second as a craftsman, often both in the same schools of arts and crafts. For the printer as art was the use of ornaments and selecting fonts printed in his compositions. The artist saw typography as a child and paying more attention to ornamental and illustrative elements.
Between 1891 and 1896, the William Morris Kelmscott Press published some of the most significant graphic products Arts and Crafts Movement (Arts and Crafts), and established a lucrative business based on the design of books of great stylistic refinement and selling them to the upper classes as luxury items. Morris proved that a market existed for works of graphic design, establishing the separation of design from production and the fine arts. The work of the Kelmscott Press is characterized by its recreation of historic styles, especially medieval.
Poster for the Moulin Rouge in Paris. Made by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec with color lithography in 1891. Thanks to Art Nouveau, graphic design and visual clarity gained by the composition.
Isotype of the Bauhaus. Founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius, is considered the birthplace of the graphic design profession.
Given Poster for Matinée. Made by Theo van Doesburg in January 1923. The free font organization, expresses the spirit of the Dada movement, irrationality, for freedom and oppose the status quo and visual expressions of the time.
Corporate identity design for Lufthansa, by the Development Group 5 of the HFG Ulm. Ulm School was an inflection point in the history of design, since there is outlined the design profession through scientific methodology.
Current pictograms design for the National Park Service of the United States. The idea to simplify the symbols forms developed during the 1950s.
The design of the early twentieth century, as well as the fine arts of the same period, was a reaction against the decadence of typography and design of the late nineteenth century.
The interest in ornamentation and the proliferation of measurement changes and typographical style one piece design, synonymous with good design, it was an idea that was maintained until the late nineteenth century. The Art Nouveau, with its clear desire stylistic was a movement that contributed to higher order visual composition. While maintaining a high level of formal complexity, did so within a strong visual consistency, discarding the variation of typographic styles in one graphic piece.
Art movements of the second decade of the twentieth century and the political turmoil that accompanied them, generated dramatic changes in graphic design. The Dada, De Stijl, Suprematism, Cubism, Constructivism, Futurism, the Bauhaus and created a new vision that influenced all branches of the visual arts and design. All these movements opposed to the decorative arts and popular, as well as the Art Nouveau, which under the influence of the new interest in geometry evolved into the Art Deco. All these movements were a revisionist and transgressive spirit in all arts of the time. This period also publications and manifestos proliferated through which artists and educators expressed their opinions.
During the 1930s developed for the composition interesting aspects of graphic design. The graphic style change was significant because it shows a reaction against eclecticism ornamentalist organicism and the time and proposes a more stripped and geometric. This style, connected with Constructivism, Suprematism, Neoplasticism, De Stijl and Bauhaus exerted a lasting influence and inescapable in the development of twentieth century graphic design. Another important element in relation to professional practice, was the increasing use of visual form as communication element. This item appeared mostly in the designs produced by the Dada and De Stijl.
The symbol of modern typography is the sans serif font or serif, inspired by industrial types of the late nineteenth century. Highlights include Edward Johnston, author of the font for the London Underground, and Eric Gill.
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